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1. Articles. You should read the complete article first before doing the exercise: http://archive.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2002/04/51969 .

Deep Below, Superplumes Ooze

Associated Press

6:55 a.m. April 19, 2002 PDT

WASHINGTON -- Hundreds of miles beneath southern Africa and South Pacific, massive plumes of
molten rock rise toward Earth's surface, material that may affect movement of rocky lands above.

Magma bursts forth as volcanoes in many parts of world, but these superplumes originate so much deeper

that they cross boundary between Earth's upper and lower mantle 400 miles below.

scientists from University of California at Berkeley, report new evidence of plumes in

Friday's issue of journal Science.

Researcher Barbara Romanowicz said earthquake studies until now have emphasized dynamics of

collisions between planet's massive surface plates. When two of them crash together, one slips beneath other

in process called subduction, and earthquakes and volcanoes can follow. "We think

superplumes play important role as well," Romanowicz said.

new study seeks to focus attention on hot material rising upward from base of mantle,

 partially molten region that extends about 1,740 miles from Earth's core to its crust, or lithosphere.

" hot material brought under lithosphere by superplumes then spreads out horizontally toward

mid-ocean ridges," Romanowicz explained. ridges are often active volcanic areas.

material heats up region under plates that cover Earth's surface and thus may actively

contribute to their movement.

David Bercovici, professor of geology and geophysics at Yale University, said other indications

of superplumes have been detected, such as variations in Earth's gravity field in those areas. He was

pleased to see plumes identified through seismic measurements.

"It's not hugely surprising to see upwellings at these regions but it's nice to see they are distinct," he said.

Romanowicz and Yuancheng Gung were able to develop images that indicate presence of

uperplumes by measuring movement of seismic waves through Earth.

Romanowicz said they used elastic tomography, process that measures movement of

seismic waves to chart interior of planet, somewhat like CAT scan machine uses X-rays

to look inside person.

She said plumes' temperature has not been determined, but they may be as much as several hundred

degrees hotter than surrounding material.

"We do not know precisely, because images we have are still not very well resolved, and actual

temperature may depend on whether superplumes are like we see them now: wide, thick conduits several

thousand kilometers across, or whether they are composed of several narrower plumes grouped together," she said.

"Generally, it is assumed that only about 10 percent of heat that comes out at surface of Earth

comes from earth's core. This number may thus be underestimated, perhaps as much as by factor of

two," she said.

regions above superplumes tend to bulge upward.

plateaus of southern and eastern Africa are about 1,600 feet higher than most old continental areas

in world, she said. This is referred to as "African superswell."

Also, she said, heat flow from Earth's interior that is measured in wide area of southern

Africa is higher than expected, indicating that unusually large supply of heat must be coming from

underneath.

volcanoes exist in Africa and in southern Atlantic Ocean that could be related to

superplume, in same way that Hawaii and other hotspot volcanoes in southern

Pacific may be related to Pacific superswell, she said.

Copyright © 2002 Associated Press

2. Prepositions. The newspaper article below is taken from "The Daily Mail, 29-01-2004".

The following prepositions are omitted:


about into
at of
by over
for to
from with
in within
in terms of without

You should add the 41 prepositions before you control yourself by hitting the answers button.

Blair truce after BBC apology


29th January 2004

Breaking news: Tony Blair has appeared to signal a truce the row the BBC the David Kelly affair, after the broadcaster apologised "unreservedly" errors.

a brief statement, the Prime Minister said he welcomed the statement that the BBC governors made, as the withdrawal the comments "was all I ever wanted".

Mr Blair said that the apology "allows us to draw a line and move on" and "allows the BBC to get on their job".

The BBC apologised "unreservedly" errors, following a demand the Prime Minister an apology the David Kelly affair.

Lord Ryder, a BBC governor, made a statement the press which he also expressed his regret the departure the corporation's Director General Greg Dyke just an hour earlier.

He apologised the errors and "the individuals whose reputations were affected". Last night's apology rejected

Prime Minister Tony Blair's official spokesman had earlier rejected the televised statement the corporation's Director General Greg Dyke, which he apologised mistakes made reporter Andrew Gilligan's controversial Today programme broadcast last year.

Lord Hutton, his inquiry Dr Kelly's death, said Mr Gilligan's main claims were "unfounded".

Mr Blair will also refer again the Hutton Inquiry a speech he is making later today, which he is expected to restate his view that his own integrity had been called question the BBC and others.

The Cabinet also discussed the Hutton report this morning, ministers agreeing serious issues such as the Iraq weapons dossier should be able to be debated impugning people's honesty.

'We do still want an apology'

Mr Blair's spokesman said: "What the Prime Minister does believe is his integrity was called question.

"It's for the BBC governors to decide personnel matters the BBC.

"However, the Prime Minister believes that the BBC will want to consider very seriously the profound criticisms Lord Hutton the reporting, the editorial control and management and the way the BBC governors themselves responded and that they will want to do so their meeting today.

"We still do want an apology."

He pointed out that Lord Hutton had said the BBC governors were to be criticised failing to give proper consideration the Government's complaint Mr Gilligan's broadcast and said the governors "should publicly acknowledge that this serious allegation should not have been published".

" what Greg Dyke said yesterday it does not amount a considered statement the BBC governors and that's what we need."

 

from: http://www.femail.co.uk/pages/standard/article.html?in_page_id=25&in_article_id=206978, 29-01-2004



3. make and do. Choose the appropriate form of either make or do to complete the given sentences.

3.1. Are they progress with their computer course? 
3.2. GBS often business with other companies in Wales.
3.3. Did that news really him happy?
3.4. The headmaster a really interesting speech on hooliganism yesterday.
3.5. She's already been her final exam test for half an hour.
3.6. What he told the children wasn't a true. He the story up the very minute he was telling it.
3.7 I know it isn't a good situation, but I'll have to the best of it.
3.8. She a scene because her father wouldn't let her do it.
3.9. Waiter, once and for all, I'd like my steak well , please.
3.10 Two thieves were caught by the young police officer whilst an attempt on a local post office.

 

 
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