The physical conditions in cities are, in general, inferior to those in towns. Studies in Britain and America show that cities receive 15 per cent less
sunshine on horizontal surfaces (and 30 per cent less ultra-
days, and 30 per cent more fog in summer, and 100 per cent more fog in winter. Visibility is one mile or less for ten times as many hours. However, they
are 5 to 15 warmer, and wind-
The incidence of many diseases is markedly higher in cities, and not simply infectious diseases. Thus, in cities of a million population or over,
bronchocarcinoma (lung cancer) is about double the rural rate. Bronchitis is also much higher.
More significant are crime and mental sickness rates. A classic study was carried out in Chicago in the thirties by Faris and Dunham. The city was divided
into 11 types of area comprising 120 sub-
steadily as one moved further away from it.
Thus there were 362 cases per 1,000 of schizophrenia in the centre, grading down to 55.4 on the periphery. There were 240 cases of alcoholic psychosis
per thousand in the centre, grading down to 60 at the periphery. Crime, suicide, drug-
Even at the periphery rates were higher than in small towns.
In short, it seems certain that the mushrooming cities of the immediate future will be plagued by crime and mental disturbance of various kinds. These
are certainly evidence of severe stress. Persons affected are less likely to reproduce. But cities exert stresses over and above social disorganization and
greater risks of disease. It used to be said that three generations in a big city would bring a family to its end. The city is fed from the country's healthy
stock, and many of its inhabitants retire again to the country before they die. These beliefs also require detailed investigation.
(about 380 words)
(text of unknown origin)
1. visibility: condition for seeing far-
2. incidence: range or extent of s.th.
3. to comprise: to be composed of
4. periphery: edge; here: suburban areas
5. psychosis: abnormal state of mind
6. mushrooming: growing rapidly
7. exert: apply s.th.; bring a quality or pressure
8. stock: supply of anything
9. investigation: inquiry; examination
1.1. The author makes a difference between "city" and "town". Give definitions of the two words, using your English-
1.2. The text consists of arguments and of facts which are intended to support the arguments. Summarize in one coherent paragraph for each:
1.2.1. the arguments
1.2.2. the supporting facts.
Indicate in brackets the numbers of the paragraphs to which the parts of your summaries refer.
1.3. Which does the author think more dangerous to the welfare of big cities: infectious diseases or mental diseases? Give reasons for your answer.
2.1. In your opinion, what type of prose is the text?
2.2. The text follows a definite plan: the basic idea is expressed in the opening sentence and is developed in all that follows. The writer concludes by re-
stating and summing up his arguments. Thus the text falls into three main parts: introduction – development -
paragraph in a noun phrase and make an outline of the text.
2.3. As we have learnt in our course, a prose text must be coherent. There must be smooth flowing from one sentence to the next, transition is also
necessary from paragraph to paragraph. It can be brought about
2.3.1. by developing a logical order,
2.3.2. by using connecting words or phrases.
Analyse the given text and collect examples of both methods.
2.4. In order to achieve strength and freshness of expression writers and speakers use figurative language.
2.4.1. What does the author mean by "mushrooming cities"?
2.4.2. What kind of rhetorical device does the author make use of?
2.4.3. Are there any other examples? If you find any, explain their meaning.
3.1. In your opinion, what are the positive aspects of living in big cities?
3.2. The text does not give many details of crime and suicide in big cities. Why, do you think, are crime and suicide rates higher in big cities than in rural areas?